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ETATS UNIS

J-44S

FAIRCHILD

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La Fairchild Engine Division démarra son projet d'étude pour un petit réacteur "bon marché" en 1946. Il devait être utilisé par la suite sur les missiles guidés que la compagnie était entrain de développer. 

En juin 1947, Fairchlid, s'est vue attribuée par l'US Navy un contrat pour un réacteur de faible puissance, destiné à  équipé un missile anti-sous-marin. Ce moteur, désigné J44, a été le premier réacteur américain "consommable", pour lequel une durée de vie d'au plus 10 heures était requise.

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Le compresseur

C'était un compresseur à  flux mixte, axiaux et centrifuges et à  aubes courbes. Il était construit d'une seule pièce coulée en alliage de magnésium qui ne nécessitait aucun usinage des pales.

Le diffuseur

Similaire au compresseur dans sa conception, la section de diffuseur, avec 3 rangées d'aubes de guidage, était usinée d'une seule pièce.

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J44 Technical data

ManufacturerFAIRCHILD
Initial testing
Certification
TypeCentrifugal-flow turbojet
Nb. built

Dimensions

Diameter560 mm22.04 in.
Lenth2240 mm88.19 in.
Frantal area0,25 m²2.7 sq ft

Weight

Not equipped127 kg280 lb
Equipped kglb

Performances

Max RPM t/mnrpm
Max Idle t/mnrpm
Thrust at max454 kg1000 lb
Thrust at idle
Pressure ratio at max2.9 / 1
Max flowkg/slb/sec
Max continue EGTdeg.Cdef.F

Consumption

Fuel Consumption gr/min oz/min
Specific fuel consumption95,82 kg/KN/h0.94 lb/lb/hr)

Combustion chamber

An annular combustion chamber was made from sheet metal and used commercialy available oil burners.

Turbine

The single stage turbine had its blades welded on to a forged steel disc. A simple, stock stainless steel tube, with a welded flange at each end, formed the rotor connecting the turbine to the compressor.

The was a bearing before the compressor and aft of the turbine and a fixed-area exhaust nozzle was used. 

In August 1948 the XJ44 made its first run.

The first flight was made in mid 1950 when it powered Fairchild's Petrel Missile.

As service trial proceeded, so problems with J44 where thrown up, most of them attribuable to over-simplified production. A lot of changes were required, and development of J44 was completed by October 1954 under designation : J44-R-3.

The Improved engine was mounted on a Fairchild C-82 cargo aircraft, then later to each wingtips of the Fairchild C-123B cargo aircraft.

Another use of the J44 was one the experimental Bell model 65 VTOL Aircraft.

The main usage of the J44 was to power the Firebee drone, although, with a specific fuel consumption of 1,55 it could not compete with Continental's J-69 (Licence version of Turbomeca's Marbore) and it was taken out of production by 1959. 

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Principales utilisations

Réacteur d'appoint

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Fairchild J44 engine mounted on a C-82 Cargo
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Fairchild C-123B fitted experimentally with two wing-tip-mounted J44 turbojet engines

Minijets

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The Bell experimental ATV or Air test Vehicule (N1105V) used 2 Fairchild J44 Turbojet for vertical and horizontal flight.

Missiles & Drones

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Fairchild's Petrel missile fitted with J44 jet engine
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Ryan Firebee powered byan Fairchilf J44. Source : Aviation week, Feb. 1958
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Source : AW, April 16, 1956
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Source : AW, April 16, 1956